Goal: Compile existing literature of the potential effects of energy development and production activities on passerines and raptors into a format that will be a useful tool for wildlife managers, land managers, and industry to help make land use decisions based on current scientific knowledge. Responses of passerines and raptors to all aspects of oil and gas development should be reviewed including, but not limited to the effects of noise, roads, traffic, human presence, drilling rigs, operational wells, and general habitat fragmentation. The level (i.e. density of roads, number of cars, density of well pads) of each of these disturbances should be incorporated into the resulting product whenever possible. Effects shall be broken into biologically significant seasonal ranges to address effects on mating behavior, nesting, and rearing of young. The habitat types of greatest interest are those that dominate the planning areas in central and eastern Montana including sagebrush, grassland, and pine breaks.