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Grizzly Bear Population Monitoring

Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem

Grizzly Bear Monitoring Team

The grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) occupies over 6 million wilderness and non-wilderness acres in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem (NCDE) of western Montana. Notable regions within this ecosystem include Glacier National Park and the Bob Marshall wilderness complex. Grizzlies were listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1975 for lack of biological information on its population status and habitat requirements. The NCDE is believed to have the largest population in the lower 48 states. It is estimated from a 2004 DNA study that there are over 700 bears in the ecosystem.

Information on both population size and trend are needed. Having estimates of size and trend will greatly improve our collective knowledge of grizzly bear ecology, and provide more measurable and precise information to judge the status of the grizzly population in the NCDE. Therefore, Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks, in cooperation with other state and federal agencies, initiated a program in 2004 to monitor the population trend of grizzly bears in NCDE. The purpose of this long-term program is to monitor the vital population parameters of grizzly bears by assessing the survival and reproductive rates, and trend. This will be accomplished by radio-monitoring female grizzly bears.

Seleted Publications

Aune, K. E., R. D. Mace, and D.W. Carney. 1994. The reproductive biology of female grizzly bears in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem with supplemental data from the Yellowstone Ecosystem. Ursus. 9:451-458 430 KB

Bestin, J.A. and R.D. Mace. What can harvest data tell us about Montana’s black bear bears? Ursus. In press.

Brannon, R, A. Dood, and R. D. Mace. 1988. Grizzly bear mortality in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem, Montana. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 16:262-269. 344 KB

Dood, A. R., R. D. Brannon, and R. D. Mace. 1987. Management of grizzly bears in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem, Montana. Trans. 51th. N.A. Wildl. And Nat. Res. Conf. 522 KB

Harris, R. B., C. C. Schwartz, R. D, Mace and M. A. Haroldson. 2011. Study design and sampling intensity for demographic analyses of bear populations. Ursus 22:24-36. 603 KB

Owen, P. and R. D. Mace. 2007. Grizzly bear population ecology in Denali Park and Preserve. Alaska Park Science Symposium 111 KB

McLellan, B. N., F. Hovey, R. D. Mace, J. G. Woods, D.W. Carney, M. L. Gibeau, W. L. Wakkinen, W.F. Kasworm. 1999. Rates and causes of grizzly bear mortality in the interior mountains of British Columbia, Alberta, Montana, Washington, and Idaho. J. Wildl. Manage. 63:911-920. 2 MB

Mace, R. D.1985. Analysis of grizzly bear habitat in the Bob Marshall Wilderness, Montana. Pages 136-149 in G. P. Contreras and K. E. Evans, compilers. Proc. Grizzly Bear Habitat Symposium. U.S. For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-207.

Mace, R. D. and G. N. Bissell. 1985. Grizzly bear food resources in the flood plains and avalanche chutes of the Bob Marshall Wilderness, Montana. Pages 78-91 in G. P. Contreras and K. E. Evans, compilers. Proc. Grizzly Bear Habitat Symposium. U.S. For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-207.

Mace, R. D. and C. J. Jonkel. 1986. Local food habits of the grizzly bear in Montana. Ursus. 6:105-110. 224 KB

Mace, R. D. K. Aune, W. Kasworm, R. Klaver, and J. Claar. 1987. Incidence of human conflicts by research grizzly bears. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 15:170-173 159 KB

Mace, R. D. ,S. C. Minta, T. L. Manley, and K. E. Aune. 1994. Estimating grizzly bear population size using camera sightings. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 22:73-84. 461 KB

Mace, R. D., T. Manley, and K. E. Aune. 1994. Factors affecting the photographic detection rate of grizzly bears in the Swan Mountains, Montana. Ursus. 9:245-251 329 KB

Mace, R. D. and J. S. Waller. 1996. Grizzly bear distribution and human conflicts in Jewel Basin Hiking Area, Swan Mountains, Montana. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 24:461-467. 9.3 MB

Mace, R. D.,J. S. Waller, T. L. Manley, L. J. Lyon, and H. Zuuring. 1996. Relationships among grizzly bears, roads, and habitat in the Swan Mountains, Montana. J. Appl. Ecol. 33:1395-1404 1 MB

Mace, R. D. and J. S. Waller. 1997a. Spatial and temporal interaction of male and female grizzly bears in northwestern Montana. J. Wildl. Manage. 61:39-52. 668 KB

Mace, R. D. and J. S. Waller. 1997b. Demography and population trend of grizzly bears in the Swan Mountains, Montana. Conserv. Biol. 12:1005-1016. 738 KB

Mace, R. D. J. S. Waller, T. L. Manley, K. Ake, and W. T. Wittinger. 1997. Landscape evaluation of grizzly bear habitat in western Montana. Conserv. Biol. 13:367-377. 714 KB

Mace, R. D. 2004. Integrating science and road access management: lesions learned from the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem Experience. Ursus 129-136 303 KB

Mace, R. D., D. W, Carney, T. Chilton-Radandt, S.A. Courville, M.A. Haroldson, R.B. Harris, J. Jonkel, M. Madel, T.L Manley, C.C. Schwartz, C. Servheen, J.S. Waller, and E. Wenum. Grizzly bear population vital rates and trend in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem, Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management. 76:119-128 198 KB

Manley, T. L., k. Ake, and R. D. Mace, 1992. Mapping grizzly bear habitat using Landsat TM satellite imagery. In: Greer, J. D. (Ed.), Remote Sensing and Natural Resource Management. American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, pp. 231–240.

Neilson, S. E., S. Herrero, M.S. Boyce, R. D. Mace, B. Benn, M. L. Gibeau, and S. Jevons. 2004. Modeling the spatial distribution of human-caused grizzly bear mortalities in the Central Rockies Ecosystem of Canada. Biological Conservation. 120:101-113. 515 KB

Phillips, L. M., R. D. Mace, and T. Meier. 2010. Assessing impacts of traffic on large mammals in Denali National Park and Preserve. ParkScience. 27(2):42-47. 328 KB

Proctor, M. P., D. Paetkau, B. Mclellan, G. Stenhouse, K. Kendall, R. Mace, W. Kasworm, C. Servheen, C. Lausen, M. Gibeau, W. Wakkinen, M. Haroldson, G. Mowat, C. Apps, L. Ciarniello, R. Barclay, M. Boyce, C. Strobeck, C. Schwartz. 2011. Population Fragmentation and Inter-ecosystem Movements of Grizzly Bears in Western Canada and the Northern USA. Wildlife Monographs. In review.

Riley, S. J., K. Aune, R. D. Mace, and M. J. Madel. 1994. Translocation of nuisance grizzly bears in northwestern Montana. Ursus. 9:567-573 328 KB

Schwartz, C. C, K. A. Keating, H. V. Reynolds, III, V. G. Barnes, Jr.,R. A. Sellers, J. E. Swenson, S. D. Miller, B. N. McLellan, J. Keay, R. McCann, M. Gibeau, W. F. Wakkinen,R. D. Mace, W. Kasworm, R. Smith, and S. Herrero. 2003. Reproductive maturation and senescence in the female brown bear. Ursus 14(2):109–119. 452 KB

Short Bull, R. A., S. A. Cushman, R. D. Mace, T. Chilton, K. C. Kendall, E. L. Landguth, M.K. Schwartz, K. McKelvey, F.W. Allendorf, and G. Luikart. 2011. Why replication is important in landscape genetics: American black bear in the Rocky Mountains. Molecular Ecology. 20:1092-1107.

Waller, J. S. and R. D. Mace. 1997. Grizzly bear habitat selection in the Swan Mountains, Montana. J. Wildl. Manage. 61:1032-1039. 1 MB

Selected Unpublished Material

R. D. Mace and J. S. Waller.1997. Final Report: Grizzly Bear Ecology in the Swan Mountains, Montana. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Helena, MT. Unpublished data. 9 MB

Mace, R. D. 2005. Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem Grizzly Bear Monitoring Team Annual Report - 2005. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks, 490 N. Meridian Road, Kalispell, MT 59901. Unpublished data. 1.8 MB

Mace, R. and T. Chilton. 2006. Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem Grizzly Bear Monitoring Team Annual Report - 2006. Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks, 490 N. Meridian Road, Kalispell, MT 59901. 53 pp. Unpublished data. 3.4 MB

Mace, R. and T. Chilton. 2008. Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem Grizzly Bear Monitoring Team Annual Report - 2007. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks, 490 N. Meridian Road, Kalispell, MT 59901. Unpublished data. 2.6 MB

Mace, R. D. and T. Chilton. 2009. Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem Grizzly Bear Monitoring Team Annual Report - 2008. Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks, 490 N. Meridian Road, Kalispell, MT 59901. Unpublished data. 982 KB

Mace, R. D. and L. Roberts. 2011. Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem Grizzly Bear Monitoring Team Annual Report, 2009-2010. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks, 490 N. Meridian Road, Kalispell, MT 59901. Unpublished data. 2.3 MB

Mace, R. D. and T. Chilton-Radandt. 2011. Black Bear Harvest Research and Management in Montana. 2011. Final Report. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Helena, MT. 6.7 MB