Deer Management

2 mule deer in the snow.

Mule deer and white-tailed deer are the most widely distributed and abundant big game mammals in Montana. Although evolved to live and thrive in broadly different environments, the two species are remarkably adaptive. Both occur in a wide variety of habitats, under widely fluctuating environmental conditions, in the presence of numerous other wild mammals and domestic livestock, and in the wake of extensive human development and disturbance.

Managing deer across diverse habitats and conditions in Montana begins with understanding both their biology and behavior. It also requires effective methods for monitoring populations and habitats as well as for manipulating deer numbers or habitat factors to meet diverse social and economic objectives.

Population and Distribution

NOTE: Maps and charts were not produced every year prior to 2010.